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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1978; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081978

Toxin-Pathogen Synergy Reshaping Detoxification and Antioxidant Defense Mechanism of Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor)

Laboratory of Bio-Control and Molecular Biology, Department of Arid Land Agriculture, College of Agricultural and Food Sciences, King Faisal University, Hofuf 31982, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Epifano
Received: 27 June 2018 / Revised: 5 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity)
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Abstract

Current study reveals the likelihood to use pathogen and toxin mutually as an effective and eco-friendly strategy for Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) management, which could reduce toxicant dose and host killing time. Therefore, phytol and Beauveria bassiana in different proportions were evaluated to determine their effectiveness. Prior to ascertaining host mortality and defense mechanisms, we have recorded in vitro action of phytol using different concentrations (0.70, 1.40, 2.10, 2.80, and 3.50 mg/mL) against B. bassiana suspension. In vitro compatibility assays revealed that growth parameters (vegetative growth, sporulation, and viability) of B. bassiana were least affected by the action of phytol at all tested concentrations. Biological Index of B. bassiana exhibited compatibility with phytol allowed us to conduct Joint toxicity bioassays in which phytol and spores mixed in different proportions in order to attain maximum treatment effect in terms of high mortality at low concentration under short time. Results revealed that joint-application exhibited both synergistic (treatments with higher proportions of phytol), and antagonistic interaction (treatments with higher proportions of spores) interactions. Biochemical mechanisms involved in host antioxidant and detoxification response were explored by quantifying their respective enzymatic activities. Lethality of different treatments induced different patterns of detoxification enzymes including glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE). Overall, the least potent treatments (20% phytol:80% spores, and 40% phytol:60% spores) established in the current study induced relatively higher GST and AchE activities. On the other hand, the most potent treatment (80% phytol:20% spores) at its maximum concentration exhibited negligible relative GST and AchE activities. Antioxidant enzyme activities of CAT and SOD measured in the current study showed moderate to complex interaction might because of toxin-pathogen remarkable synergy. This study suggested that joint application of phytol with B. bassiana spores have shown tremendous acaricidal potential and found to be promising new strategy for controlling old world date mites. View Full-Text
Keywords: compatibility; synergism; antagonism; biological control; phytol; Beauveria bassiana; host defense; plant secondary metabolite; old world date mites compatibility; synergism; antagonism; biological control; phytol; Beauveria bassiana; host defense; plant secondary metabolite; old world date mites
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AlJabr, A.M.; Hussain, A.; Rizwan-ul-haq, M. Toxin-Pathogen Synergy Reshaping Detoxification and Antioxidant Defense Mechanism of Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor). Molecules 2018, 23, 1978.

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