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Molecules 2018, 23(8), 1931; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23081931

Bioactive Compound Fingerprint Analysis of Aged Raw Pu’er Tea and Young Ripened Pu’er Tea

1
Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Life Sciences and Facility Management, 8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland
2
Hamburg School of Food Science, Institute of Food Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Grindelallee 117, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
3
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Ackerstrasse 113, 5070 Frick, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tea Chemistry )
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Abstract

Pu’er tea produced from Camellia sinensis var. assamica is a widely appreciated and consumed beverage that can be divided into two kinds of tea depending on the different fermentation processed used, the special sensory characteristics, and their chemical composition. However, authentication seems to be very important for such teas, as they are traded to comparatively high prices, especially in Europe. The results for selected biochemical markers showed that aged raw pu’er tea contained 210.2 mg GAE/g polyphenols, of which 2.2 mg/g were gallic acid, 16.1 mg/g theogallin, 35.1 mg/g (−)-epigallocatechin gallate, and 40.1 mg/g (−)-epicatechin gallate, on average. Young ripened pu’er tea contained about 104.6 mg GAE/g polyphenols, of which 5.5 mg/g gallic acid, 0.9 mg/g theogallin, 0.7 mg/g (−)-epigallocatechin gallate, and 1.8 mg/g (−)-epicatechin gallate, on average. An additional objective of the present study was to unravel the best brewing conditions for optimal extraction of the bioactive compounds. Infusions of nineteen commercial teas (from pu’er cakes) were obtained at different time-temperature ratios for studying the content of bioactive compounds (flavan-3-ols, flavonols, caffeoylquinic acids, methylxanthines). Brewing at 90 °C for 5 min was the best condition to obtain a high content of total polyphenols in ripened pu’er tea. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis showed, that young ripened and aged raw pu’er tea can be successfully differentiated by the analyzed chemical compounds. Principal component analysis results indicated that young ripened pu’er tea has higher contents of gallic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol than aged raw pu’er tea. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pu’er tea; LC-MS analysis; polyphenols; principal component analysis; hierarchical cluster analysis; brewing condition Pu’er tea; LC-MS analysis; polyphenols; principal component analysis; hierarchical cluster analysis; brewing condition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Pedan, V.; Rohn, S.; Holinger, M.; Hühn, T.; Chetschik, I. Bioactive Compound Fingerprint Analysis of Aged Raw Pu’er Tea and Young Ripened Pu’er Tea. Molecules 2018, 23, 1931.

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