Next Article in Journal
The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Heimia myrtifolia and Comparative Analysis within Myrtales
Next Article in Special Issue
Light Emission from the Fe2+-EGTA-H2O2 System: Possible Application for the Determination of Antioxidant Activity of Plant Phenolics
Previous Article in Journal
Preparation of Ruthenium Dithiolene Complex/Polysiloxane Films and Their Responses to CO Gas
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antioxidant Activities of Phenolic Metabolites from Flemingia philippinensis Merr. et Rolfe and Their Application to DNA Damage Protection
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2018, 23(4), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040844

Optimization of the Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Oryza Sativa L. ‘Violet Nori’ and Determination of the Antioxidant Properties of its Caryopses and Leaves

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Genova, 16148, Genova, Italy
2
Marco Polo Institute, Via Angelo Sciaccaluga 9, 16147, Genova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susana M. Cardoso
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 7 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Capacities of Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3249 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

‘Violet Nori’ is a new spontaneous growing violet rice variety showing a peculiar violet color in its fresh leaves as well. In this paper, the antioxidant properties and the content of total phenols, radical scavengers, and anthocyanins in ‘Violet Nori’ caryopses, flour, and leaves are explored and compared. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction (UAE) is employed for the extraction of phenolic compounds, improving the extraction conditions by Design of Experiments (DoE). The obtained results show that the Radical Scavenging Activities (RSAs), the Total Phenolic Contents (TPCs), and the anthocyanin amounts (1000–1500 μg/g, expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside) of ‘Violet Nori’ caryopses are higher than those in the other analyzed colored rice samples (300–900 μg/g as cyanidin-3-glucoside), with the exception of the cultivars ‘Artemide’ and ‘Nerone’, which show comparable values of RSAs and TPCs. The study of ‘Violet Nori’ leaves at different plant maturation stages shows that their anthocyanin content is 2–3 times higher than in the caryopses and in the flour, reaching the highest levels at about 60 days from seeding. Thus, the estimated extraction yield of 4 kg anthocyanins/t makes fresh leaves very interesting for the extraction of anthocyanins on an industrial scale, whereas violet caryopses are a very interesting dietetic source of valuable anthocyanins and other antioxidant compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE); antioxidant activity; anthocyanins; violet rice; violet leaves Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction (UAE); antioxidant activity; anthocyanins; violet rice; violet leaves
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Turrini, F.; Boggia, R.; Leardi, R.; Borriello, M.; Zunin, P. Optimization of the Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Oryza Sativa L. ‘Violet Nori’ and Determination of the Antioxidant Properties of its Caryopses and Leaves. Molecules 2018, 23, 844.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top