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Molecules 2018, 23(4), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23040846

The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Heimia myrtifolia and Comparative Analysis within Myrtales

1
School of Landscape and Architecture, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou 311300, China
2
Zhejiang Academy of Forestry, Hangzhou 310023, China
3
Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
4
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 5011, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract

Heimia myrtifolia is an important medicinal plant with several pharmacologically active alkaloids and is also used as an ornamental landscape plant. The purpose of this study is to complete and characterize the chloroplast (cp) genome of H. myrtifolia and compare genomic features to other Myrtales species’ cp genomes. The analysis showed that H. myrtifolia has a total length of 159,219 bp with a typical quadripartite structure containing two identical inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,643 bp isolated by one large single copy (LSC) of 88,571 bp and one small single copy (SSC) of 18,822 bp. The H. myrtifolia cp genome contains 129 genes with eight ribosomal RNAs, 30 transfer RNAs, and 78 protein coding genes, in which 17 genes are duplicated in two IR regions. The genome organization including gene type and number and guanine-cytosine (GC) content is analyzed among the 12 cp genomes in this study. Approximately 255 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 16 forward, two reverses, and two palindromic repeats were identified in the H. myrtifolia cp genome. By comparing the whole H. myrtifolia cp genome with 11 other Myrtales species, the results showed that the sequence similarity was high between coding regions while sequence divergence was high between intergenic regions. By employing the full cp genomes for phylogenetic analysis, structural and sequence differences were characterized between H. myrtifolia and 11 Myrtales species illustrating what patterns are common in the evolution of cp genomes within the Myrtales. The first entire cp genome in the genus Heimia provides a valuable resource for further studies in these medicinally and ornamentally important taxa. View Full-Text
Keywords: Heimia myrtifolia; cp genome; codon usage; sequence divergence; phylogeny Heimia myrtifolia; cp genome; codon usage; sequence divergence; phylogeny
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Gu, C.; Dong, B.; Xu, L.; Tembrock, L.R.; Zheng, S.; Wu, Z. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Heimia myrtifolia and Comparative Analysis within Myrtales. Molecules 2018, 23, 846.

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