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Molecules 2018, 23(3), 578; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030578

1H-NMR Profiling and Chemometric Analysis of Selected Honeys from South Africa, Zambia, and Slovakia

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Chemistry Division, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
2
Makana Meadery, Reynolds St, Grahamstown 6139, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
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Abstract

Honey is the natural sweet substance produced by honeybee from nectar or honeydew, exhibiting several nutritional and health benefits. It contains a complex mixture of compounds in different proportions, with sugars being the main component. The physicochemical characteristics of ten honeys were evaluated; represented by five, three, and two from South Africa, Slovakia, and Zambia, respectively. The range of values for the pH (3.75–4.38), electrical conductivity (99–659 µS/cm), and moisture content (14.2–17.7%) are within the recommended limits for quality honeys. 1H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) profiling of the honeys in D2O was determined, and the data were analysed by chemometrics. This method is fast, reproducible, and sample pre-treatment is not necessary. The 1H-NMR fingerprints of various chemical shift regions showed similarity or dissimilarity across geographical origins that are useful for identification, detection of adulteration, and quality control. The principal component analysis PCA and partial linear square discriminant analysis PLS-DA of the 1H-NMR profiles successively categorises the honeys into two chemically related groups. The R2 values are higher than the corresponding Q2 values for all samples, confirming the reliability of the model. Honeys in the same cluster contain similar metabolites and belong to the same botanic or floral origin. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey; 1H-NMR fingerprint; profiling; chemometrics; principal component analysis (PCA); partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA); grouping honey; 1H-NMR fingerprint; profiling; chemometrics; principal component analysis (PCA); partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA); grouping
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Olawode, E.O.; Tandlich, R.; Cambray, G. 1H-NMR Profiling and Chemometric Analysis of Selected Honeys from South Africa, Zambia, and Slovakia. Molecules 2018, 23, 578.

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