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Molecules 2018, 23(1), 117; doi:10.3390/molecules23010117

Iridoids and Other Monoterpenes in the Alzheimer’s Brain: Recent Development and Future Prospects

Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories & Herbal Analysis Services, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham-Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 7 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 25th Anniversary of the Amyloid Hypothesis and Alzheimer Disease)
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Abstract

Iridoids are a class of monoterpenoid compounds constructed from 10-carbon skeleton of isoprene building units. These compounds in their aglycones and glycosylated forms exist in nature to contribute to mechanisms related to plant defenses and diverse plant-animal interactions. Recent studies have also shown that iridoids and other structurally related monoterpenes display a vast array of pharmacological effects that make them potential modulators of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review critically evaluates the therapeutic potential of these natural products by assessing key in vitro and in vivo data published in the scientific literature. Mechanistic approach of scrutiny addressing their effects in the Alzheimer’s brain including the τ-protein phosphorylation signaling, amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, aggregation, toxicity and clearance along with various effects from antioxidant to antiinflammatory mechanisms are discussed. The drug likeness of these compounds and future prospects to consider in their development as potential leads are addressed. View Full-Text
Keywords: monoterpenes; iridoids; Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid beta; drug likeness; multiple mechanisms monoterpenes; iridoids; Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid beta; drug likeness; multiple mechanisms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Habtemariam, S. Iridoids and Other Monoterpenes in the Alzheimer’s Brain: Recent Development and Future Prospects. Molecules 2018, 23, 117.

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