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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1565; doi:10.3390/molecules22091565

The Native Fruit Geoffroea decorticans from Arid Northern Chile: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activities and In Vitro Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory and Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Enzymes

1
Departamento de Ciencias Básicas Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
2
Laboratorio de Cultivo Celular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
3
Laboratorio de Química de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Talca 3460000, Chile
4
Laboratorio de Investigación de Productos Naturales (LIPRON), Instituto de Química del NOA (INQUINOA, CONICET), Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Miguel de Tucumán, Tucumán 4000, Argentina
5
Laboratorio de Productos Naturales, Instituto de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5090000, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The native tree Geoffroea decorticans (chañar) grows in the arid lands of northern Chile. It has been used as a food plant since prehistoric times. Phenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) of Chilean chañar fruits were assessed for their chemical composition, antioxidant properties and inhibition of pro-inflammatory and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. Phenolic profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The PEEs of G. decorticans showed a strong effect towards the enzymes COX-1/COX-2, with inhibition percentages ranging from inactive to 92.1% and inactive to 76.0% at 50 µg PEE/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of the PEEs towards lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity were between 43.6–96.8 and 98.9–156.0 μg PEE/mL, respectively. Samples inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 0.8–7.3 μg PEE/mL) and lipase (9.9 to >100 μg PEE/mL). However, samples did not inhibit α-amylase. The HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of the PEEs allowed the tentative identification of 53 compounds, mainly flavonol glycosides and procyanidins. The procyanidin content of the Chilean G. decorticans pulp was positively correlated with the antioxidant activity and the inhibition of the enzyme α-glucosidase. These results indicate that the Chilean chañar fruit contains bioactive polyphenols with functional properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: Geoffroea decorticans; antioxidant capacity; anti-inflammatory activity; phenolic composition; metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes; HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS Geoffroea decorticans; antioxidant capacity; anti-inflammatory activity; phenolic composition; metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes; HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jiménez-Aspee, F.; Theoduloz, C.; Soriano, M.P.C.; Ugalde-Arbizu, M.; Alberto, M.R.; Zampini, I.C.; Isla, M.I.; Simirgiotis, M.J.; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G. The Native Fruit Geoffroea decorticans from Arid Northern Chile: Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Activities and In Vitro Inhibition of Pro-Inflammatory and Metabolic Syndrome-Associated Enzymes. Molecules 2017, 22, 1565.

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