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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1527; doi:10.3390/molecules22091527

Antibiofilm Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Disinfectant Chloramine T on Candida spp., and Its Toxicity against Human Cells

1
Graduate Program in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), João Pessoa PB 58051900, Brazil
2
Department of Physiological Sciences, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba SP 13414903, Brazil
3
Department of Oral Biology, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Drug Discovery Approaches against Infectious Diseases)
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Abstract

We evaluated the antifungal and anti-biofilm activity, mechanism of action and cytotoxicity of chloramine T trihydrate (CAT) against Candida spp. The Minimum Inhibitory and Fungicidal Concentrations (MIC/MFC) of CAT were determined. Changes in CAT-treated C. albicans growth kinetics and micromorphology were evaluated, as well as the mechanism of action, and its effects on biofilm. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the hemolysis method. The data were analyzed by inferential statistics (p ≤ 0.05). CAT showed antifungal activity against all strains, with MIC values ranging between 1.38 and 5.54 mmol/L (MIC75%: 2.77 mmol/L). CAT demonstrated an immediate and sustained action on C. albicans growth kinetics, particularly at 2 × MIC. This compound likely acts on the cell wall and membrane permeability simultaneously and was found to cause changes in C. albicans micromorphology. Tha antibiofilm activity of CAT was similar to that of sodium hypochlorite (p > 0.05) against mature biofilms. CAT was more effective than NaOCl in reducing mature biofilm upon 1-min exposure at 2 × MIC (24 h) and 4 × MIC (48 h) (p < 0.05). Toxicological analysis revealed that CAT had hemolytic activity between 61 and 67.7% as compared to 100% by NaOCl. CAT has antifungal and anti-biofilm properties, probably acting on both cell wall and membrane permeability, and showed low toxicity in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: stomatitis; denture; denture cleansers; chloramines; candidiasis; oral; biofilms stomatitis; denture; denture cleansers; chloramines; candidiasis; oral; biofilms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ferreira, G.L.S.; Rosalen, P.L.; Peixoto, L.R.; Pérez, A.L.A.L.; Carlo, F.G.C.; Castellano, L.R.C.; Lima, J.M.; Freires, I.A.; Lima, E.O.; Castro, R.D. Antibiofilm Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Disinfectant Chloramine T on Candida spp., and Its Toxicity against Human Cells. Molecules 2017, 22, 1527.

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