Next Article in Journal
Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Space and Earth-Grown Crystal Structures of Thermostable T1 Lipase Geobacillus zalihae Revealed a Better Structure
Next Article in Special Issue
Antibacterial and Antitubercular Activities of Cinnamylideneacetophenones
Previous Article in Journal
Glycyrrhetinic Acid Liposomes Containing Mannose-Diester Lauric Diacid-Cholesterol Conjugate Synthesized by Lipase-Catalytic Acylation for Liver-Specific Delivery
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antibiofilm Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Disinfectant Chloramine T on Candida spp., and Its Toxicity against Human Cells
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1534; doi:10.3390/molecules22101534

Antimicrobial Effects of Violacein against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus

1
Clinical Department of Toxicological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60356000, Brazil
2
Organic Chemistry Department, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60356000, Brazil
3
Biology Department, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60356000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Drug Discovery Approaches against Infectious Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1021 KB, uploaded 25 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Violacein is an indole compound, produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, a bacteria present in tropical and subtropical areas. Among its numerous biological activities, its antimicrobial potential stands out. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of VIO on S. aureus in planktonic culture and biofilms. VIO showed excellent antimicrobial activity in inhibiting and killing S. aureus in planktonic cultures and biofilm formation. The minimum bactericidal concentration (5 μg/mL) of VIO caused the death of S. aureus after 3–4 h of exposure and the minimum inhibitory concentration (1.25 μg/mL) of VIO inhibited bacterial growth within the first 8 h of contact. Biofilm formation was also strongly inhibited by VIO (1.25 μg/mL), in contrast to the higher resistance verified for S. aureus in mature biofilm (40 μg/mL). The high bacterial metabolic activity favored VIO activity; however, the good activity observed during phases of reduced metabolism indicates that VIO action involves more than one mechanism. Thus, VIO is a promising molecule for the development of an antimicrobial drug for the eradication of S. aureus infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: violacein; antimicrobial activity; biofilms; Staphylococcus aureus violacein; antimicrobial activity; biofilms; Staphylococcus aureus
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Batista, A.H.M.; Moreira, A.C.D.; de Carvalho, R.M.; Sales, G.W.P.; Nogueira, P.C.N.; Grangeiro, T.B.; Medeiros, S.C.; Silveira, E.R.; Nogueira, N.A.P. Antimicrobial Effects of Violacein against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 2017, 22, 1534.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top