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Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1534; doi:10.3390/molecules22101534

Antimicrobial Effects of Violacein against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus

Clinical Department of Toxicological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60356000, Brazil
Organic Chemistry Department, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60356000, Brazil
Biology Department, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza 60356000, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Drug Discovery Approaches against Infectious Diseases)
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Violacein is an indole compound, produced by Chromobacterium violaceum, a bacteria present in tropical and subtropical areas. Among its numerous biological activities, its antimicrobial potential stands out. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of VIO on S. aureus in planktonic culture and biofilms. VIO showed excellent antimicrobial activity in inhibiting and killing S. aureus in planktonic cultures and biofilm formation. The minimum bactericidal concentration (5 μg/mL) of VIO caused the death of S. aureus after 3–4 h of exposure and the minimum inhibitory concentration (1.25 μg/mL) of VIO inhibited bacterial growth within the first 8 h of contact. Biofilm formation was also strongly inhibited by VIO (1.25 μg/mL), in contrast to the higher resistance verified for S. aureus in mature biofilm (40 μg/mL). The high bacterial metabolic activity favored VIO activity; however, the good activity observed during phases of reduced metabolism indicates that VIO action involves more than one mechanism. Thus, VIO is a promising molecule for the development of an antimicrobial drug for the eradication of S. aureus infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: violacein; antimicrobial activity; biofilms; Staphylococcus aureus violacein; antimicrobial activity; biofilms; Staphylococcus aureus

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Batista, A.H.M.; Moreira, A.C.D.; de Carvalho, R.M.; Sales, G.W.P.; Nogueira, P.C.N.; Grangeiro, T.B.; Medeiros, S.C.; Silveira, E.R.; Nogueira, N.A.P. Antimicrobial Effects of Violacein against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 2017, 22, 1534.

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