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Molecules 2017, 22(9), 1384; doi:10.3390/molecules22091384

Chemical Composition of Pinus roxburghii Bark Volatile Oil and Validation of Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity Using Molecular Modelling and Bleomycin-Induced Inflammation in Albino Mice

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain-Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
2
National Center for Natural Products Research, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA
3
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
4
Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 19 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory Agents)
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Abstract

The chemical composition of Pinus roxburghii bark essential oil (PRO) was qualitatively and quantitatively determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro by evaluating the binding percentages on the cannabinoids and opioids receptors. Bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary inflammation in albino mice was adopted to assess PRO anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo. In silico molecular modelling of its major components was performed on human glucocorticoids receptor (GR). Seventy-five components were identified in which longifolene (33.13%) and palmitic acid (9.34%) constituted the predominant components. No binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), whereas mild binding was observed on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), delta, kappa, and mu receptors accounting for 2.9%, 6.9%, 10.9% and 22% binding. A significant in vivo activity was evidenced by reduction of the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels by 55.56%, 55.66%, 64.64%, 58.85% and 77.78% with concomitant elevation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities comparable to BLM-treated group at 100 mg/kg body weight. In silico studies showed that palmitic acid exerted the fittest binding. PRO could serve as a potent anti-inflammatory natural candidate that should be supported by further clinical trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity; bleomycin; gas-chromatography; molecular modelling; Pinus roxburghii; Pinaceae discipline anti-inflammatory activity; bleomycin; gas-chromatography; molecular modelling; Pinus roxburghii; Pinaceae discipline
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MDPI and ACS Style

Labib, R.M.; Youssef, F.S.; Ashour, M.L.; Abdel-Daim, M.M.; Ross, S.A. Chemical Composition of Pinus roxburghii Bark Volatile Oil and Validation of Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity Using Molecular Modelling and Bleomycin-Induced Inflammation in Albino Mice. Molecules 2017, 22, 1384.

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