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Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1363; doi:10.3390/molecules22081363

Spirulina maxima Extract Prevents Neurotoxicity via Promoting Activation of BDNF/CREB Signaling Pathways in Neuronal Cells and Mice

1
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyonggi 13488, Korea
2
Department of Food Science and Engineering, Seowon University, Cheongju 28674, Korea
3
Jeju International Marine Science Center for Research & Education, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST), Jeju 63349, Korea
These authors equally contributed to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract

Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes. SM70EE increased the factors of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cyclic AMPresponsive elementbinding protein (CREB) signalling pathways. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was suppressed by SM70EE. Furthermore, we investigated whether SM70EE prevents cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice by applying behavioral tests. SM70EE increased step-through latency time and decreased the escape latency time. Therefore, our data suggest that SM70EE may prevent TMT neurotoxicity through promoting activation of BDNF/CREB neuroprotective signaling pathways in neuronal cells. In vivo study, SM70EE would prevent cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE); trimethyltin (TMT); neurotoxicity; acetylcholinesterase (AChE); cognitive deficits Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE); trimethyltin (TMT); neurotoxicity; acetylcholinesterase (AChE); cognitive deficits
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Koh, E.-J.; Seo, Y.-J.; Choi, J.; Lee, H.Y.; Kang, D.-H.; Kim, K.-J.; Lee, B.-Y. Spirulina maxima Extract Prevents Neurotoxicity via Promoting Activation of BDNF/CREB Signaling Pathways in Neuronal Cells and Mice. Molecules 2017, 22, 1363.

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