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Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1352; doi:10.3390/molecules22081352

Sulfonamide-Linked Ciprofloxacin, Sulfadiazine and Amantadine Derivatives as a Novel Class of Inhibitors of Jack Bean Urease; Synthesis, Kinetic Mechanism and Molecular Docking

1
Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
2
Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
CIBER-BBN, Networking Centre on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Barcelona Science Park, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
4
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kongju National University, 56 Gongjudehak-Ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701, Korea
5
Department of Physiology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfonamides)
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Abstract

Sulfonamide derivatives serve as an important building blocks in the drug design discovery and development (4D) process. Ciprofloxacin-, sulfadiazine- and amantadine-based sulfonamides were synthesized as potent inhibitors of jack bean urease and free radical scavengers. Molecular diversity was explored and electronic factors were also examined. All 24 synthesized compounds exhibited excellent potential against urease enzyme. Compound 3e (IC50 = 0.081 ± 0.003 µM), 6a (IC50 = 0.0022 ± 0.0002 µM), 9e (IC50 = 0.0250 ± 0.0007 µM) and 12d (IC50 = 0.0266 ± 0.0021 µM) were found to be the lead compounds compared to standard (thiourea, IC50 = 17.814 ± 0.096 µM). Molecular docking studies were performed to delineate the binding affinity of the molecules and a kinetic mechanism of enzyme inhibition was propounded. Compounds 3e, 6a and 12d exhibited a mixed type of inhibition, while derivative 9e revealed a non-competitive mode of inhibition. Compounds 12a, 12b, 12d, 12e and 12f showed excellent radical scavenging potency in comparison to the reference drug vitamin C. View Full-Text
Keywords: jack bean urease inhibition; kinetic mechanism; molecular docking; sulfonamides; drug derivatives; drug discovery jack bean urease inhibition; kinetic mechanism; molecular docking; sulfonamides; drug derivatives; drug discovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Channar, P.A.; Saeed, A.; Albericio, F.; Larik, F.A.; Abbas, Q.; Hassan, M.; Raza, H.; Seo, S.-Y. Sulfonamide-Linked Ciprofloxacin, Sulfadiazine and Amantadine Derivatives as a Novel Class of Inhibitors of Jack Bean Urease; Synthesis, Kinetic Mechanism and Molecular Docking. Molecules 2017, 22, 1352.

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