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Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1330; doi:10.3390/molecules22081330

Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Medicinal Plant Artemisia annua

1
Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Artemisinin Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
2
School of Chinese Materia Medica, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China
3
College of Pharmacy, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, Hubei, China
4
College of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Dali University, Dali 671000, Yunnan, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract

The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia annua (Asteraceae), the primary source of artemisinin, was sequenced and analyzed. The A. annua cp genome is 150,995 bp, and harbors a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), of 24,850 bp each that separate large (LSC, 82,988 bp) and small (SSC, 18,267 bp) single-copy regions. Our annotation revealed that the A. annua cp genome contains 113 genes and 18 duplicated genes. The gene order in the SSC region of A. annua is inverted; this fact is consistent with the sequences of chloroplast genomes from three other Artemisia species. Fifteen (15) forward and seventeen (17) inverted repeats were detected in the genome. The existence of rich SSR loci in the genome suggests opportunities for future population genetics work on this anti-malarial medicinal plant. In A. annua cpDNA, the rps19 gene was found in the LSC region rather than the IR region, and the rps19 pseudogene was absent in the IR region. Sequence divergence analysis of five Asteraceae species indicated that the most highly divergent regions were found in the intergenic spacers, and that the differences between A. annua and A. fukudo were very slight. A phylogenetic analysis revealed a sister relationship between A. annua and A. fukudo. This study identified the unique characteristics of the A. annua cp genome. These results offer valuable information for future research on Artemisia species identification and for the selective breeding of A. annua with high pharmaceutical efficacy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Artemisia annua; chloroplast genome; phylogeny Artemisia annua; chloroplast genome; phylogeny
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Shen, X.; Wu, M.; Liao, B.; Liu, Z.; Bai, R.; Xiao, S.; Li, X.; Zhang, B.; Xu, J.; Chen, S. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Medicinal Plant Artemisia annua. Molecules 2017, 22, 1330.

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