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Molecules 2017, 22(8), 1224; doi:10.3390/molecules22081224

Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Function

1
Biochemistry Department, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, 0950 Thohoyandou, South Africa
2
Chemistry Department, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, 0950 Thohoyandou, South Africa
3
Microbiology Department, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, 0950 Thohoyandou, South Africa
4
Botany Department, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, 0950 Thohoyandou, South Africa
5
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
6
School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, 0950 Thohoyandou, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
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Abstract

Malaria parasites are increasingly becoming resistant to currently used antimalarial therapies, therefore there is an urgent need to expand the arsenal of alternative antimalarial drugs. In addition, it is also important to identify novel antimalarial drug targets. In the current study, extracts of two plants, Pterocarpus angolensis and Ziziphus mucronata were obtained and their antimalarial functions were investigated. Furthermore, we explored the capability of the extracts to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) function. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) are molecular chaperones whose function is to facilitate protein folding. Plasmodium falciparum the main agent of malaria, expresses two cytosol-localized Hsp70s: PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z. The PfHsp70-z has been reported to be essential for parasite survival, while inhibition of PfHsp70-1 function leads to parasite death. Hence both PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp70-z are potential antimalarial drug targets. Extracts of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited the basal ATPase and chaperone functions of the two parasite Hsp70s. Furthermore, fractions of P. angolensis and Z. mucronata inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 parasite growth in vitro. The extracts obtained in the current study exhibited antiplasmodial activity as they killed P. falciparum parasites maintained in vitro. In addition, the findings further suggest that some of the compounds in P. angolensis and Z. mucronata may target parasite Hsp70 function. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimalarial activity; Hsp70; molecular chaperone; Pterocarpus angolensis; Ziziphus mucronata antimalarial activity; Hsp70; molecular chaperone; Pterocarpus angolensis; Ziziphus mucronata
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zininga, T.; Anokwuru, C.P.; Sigidi, M.T.; Tshisikhawe, M.P.; Ramaite, I.I.D.; Traoré, A.N.; Hoppe, H.; Shonhai, A.; Potgieter, N. Extracts Obtained from Pterocarpus angolensis DC and Ziziphus mucronata Exhibit Antiplasmodial Activity and Inhibit Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Function. Molecules 2017, 22, 1224.

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