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Molecules 2017, 22(6), 980; doi:10.3390/molecules22060980

Modifications of Porphyrins and Hydroporphyrins for Their Solubilization in Aqueous Media

Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3060, USA
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Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017

Abstract

The increasing popularity of porphyrins and hydroporphyrins for use in a variety of biomedical (photodynamic therapy, fluorescence tagging and imaging, photoacoustic imaging) and technical (chemosensing, catalysis, light harvesting) applications is also associated with the growing number of methodologies that enable their solubilization in aqueous media. Natively, the vast majority of synthetic porphyrinic compounds are not water-soluble. Moreover, any water-solubility imposes several restrictions on the synthetic chemist on when to install solubilizing groups in the synthetic sequence, and how to isolate and purify these compounds. This review summarizes the chemical modifications to render synthetic porphyrins water-soluble, with a focus on the work disclosed since 2000. Where available, practical data such as solubility, indicators for the degree of aggregation, and special notes for the practitioner are listed. We hope that this review will guide synthetic chemists through the many strategies known to make porphyrins and hydroporphyrins water soluble. View Full-Text
Keywords: water-solubility; porphyrin; chlorin; bacteriochlorin; PEGylation; bioconjugation; photodynamic therapy; bioimaging water-solubility; porphyrin; chlorin; bacteriochlorin; PEGylation; bioconjugation; photodynamic therapy; bioimaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Luciano, M.; Brückner, C. Modifications of Porphyrins and Hydroporphyrins for Their Solubilization in Aqueous Media. Molecules 2017, 22, 980.

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