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Molecules 2017, 22(6), 871; doi:10.3390/molecules22060871

Natural Products as Alternative Choices for P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) Inhibition

1
Advanced Pharmacognosy Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, ADAMAS University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126, India
3
Department of Bioechnology, ADAMAS University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126, India
4
Department of Pharmacy, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal 18050, Pakistan
5
Department of Pharmacy, Salerno University, Fisciano 84084, Salerno, Italy
6
Environment Science Department, Lahore College for Women University, Jail Road, Lahore 54600, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Emília de Sousa
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 15 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017

Abstract

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is regarded as one of the bottlenecks of successful clinical treatment for numerous chemotherapeutic agents. Multiple key regulators are alleged to be responsible for MDR and making the treatment regimens ineffective. In this review, we discuss MDR in relation to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its down-regulation by natural bioactive molecules. P-gp, a unique ATP-dependent membrane transport protein, is one of those key regulators which are present in the lining of the colon, endothelial cells of the blood brain barrier (BBB), bile duct, adrenal gland, kidney tubules, small intestine, pancreatic ducts and in many other tissues like heart, lungs, spleen, skeletal muscles, etc. Due to its diverse tissue distribution, P-gp is a novel protective barrier to stop the intake of xenobiotics into the human body. Over-expression of P-gp leads to decreased intracellular accretion of many chemotherapeutic agents thus assisting in the development of MDR. Eventually, the effectiveness of these drugs is decreased. P-gp inhibitors act by altering intracellular ATP levels which are the source of energy and/or by affecting membrane contours to increase permeability. However, the use of synthetic inhibitors is known to cause serious toxicities. For this reason, the search for more potent and less toxic P-gp inhibitors of natural origin is underway. The present review aims to recapitulate the research findings on bioactive constituents of natural origin with P-gp inhibition characteristics. Natural bioactive constituents with P-gp modulating effects offer great potential for semi-synthetic modification to produce new scaffolds which could serve as valuable investigative tools to recognize the function of complex ABC transporters apart from evading the systemic toxicities shown by synthetic counterparts. Despite the many published scientific findings encompassing P-gp inhibitors, however, this article stand alones because it provides a vivid picture to the readers pertaining to Pgp inhibitors obtained from natural sources coupled with their mode of action and structures. It provides first-hand information to the scientists working in the field of drug discovery to further synthesise and discover new P-gp inhibitors with less toxicity and more efficacies. View Full-Text
Keywords: P-glycoprotein (P-gp); multi drug resistance (MDR); ABC transporters; P-gp inhibitors; chemotherapy; xenobiotics P-glycoprotein (P-gp); multi drug resistance (MDR); ABC transporters; P-gp inhibitors; chemotherapy; xenobiotics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dewanjee, S.; Dua, T.K.; Bhattacharjee, N.; Das, A.; Gangopadhyay, M.; Khanra, R.; Joardar, S.; Riaz, M.; Feo, V.D.; Zia-Ul-Haq, M. Natural Products as Alternative Choices for P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) Inhibition. Molecules 2017, 22, 871.

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