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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 811; doi:10.3390/molecules22050811

The Phenolic Fraction of Mentha haplocalyx and Its Constituent Linarin Ameliorate Inflammatory Response through Inactivation of NF-κB and MAPKs in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cells

1
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine Chemistry, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China
2
Department of Scientific Research Center, School of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Life Science, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
4
Department of Pathology, School of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher W. K. Lam
Received: 15 March 2017 / Revised: 1 May 2017 / Accepted: 9 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6560 KB, uploaded 16 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Mentha haplocalyx has been widely used for its flavoring and medicinal properties and as a traditional Chinese medicine with its anti-inflammation properties. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and potential molecular mechanisms of the phenolic fraction of M. haplocalyx (MHP) and its constituent linarin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. The high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of MHP. Using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), the expression of pro-inflammatory meditators and cytokines was measured at the transcriptional and translational levels. Western blot analysis was used to further investigate changes in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Akt signaling pathways. Fourteen phenolic constituents were identified from MHP based on the data of the mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis. MHP and linarin decreased the production of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlenkin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were also suppressed by MHP and linarin. Further investigation showed that MHP and linarin down-regulated LPS-induced phosphorylation content of NF-κB p65, inhibitor kappa B α (IκBα), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. However, MHP and linarin showed no inhibitory effect on the phosphorylated Akt. These results suggested that MHP and linarin exerted a potent inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory meditator and cytokines production via the inactivation of NF-κB and MAPKs, and they may serve as potential modulatory agents for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mentha haplocalyx; phenolic fraction; linarin; anti-inflammation; NF-κB; MAPK; Akt Mentha haplocalyx; phenolic fraction; linarin; anti-inflammation; NF-κB; MAPK; Akt
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Chen, X.; Zhang, S.; Xuan, Z.; Ge, D.; Chen, X.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Q.; Wu, Y.; Liu, B. The Phenolic Fraction of Mentha haplocalyx and Its Constituent Linarin Ameliorate Inflammatory Response through Inactivation of NF-κB and MAPKs in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced RAW264.7 Cells. Molecules 2017, 22, 811.

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