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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 748; doi:10.3390/molecules22050748

Anti-Onchocerca and Anti-Caenorhabditis Activity of a Hydro-Alcoholic Extract from the Fruits of Acacia nilotica and Some Proanthocyanidin Derivatives

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundere, P.O. Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
2
Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry (IPBP), University of Münster, PharmaCampus Correnstrasse 48, D-48149 Münster, Germany
3
Institute for Zoophysiology, University of Münster, Schlossplatz 8, D-48143 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract

Acacia nilotica fruits with high tannin content are used in the northern parts of Cameroon as anti-filarial remedies by traditional healers. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract (crude extract (CE)) and, one of the main constituents in its most active fractions, (+)-catechin-3-O-gallate (CG), as well as four related proanthocyanidins, (−)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (−)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), were assessed for their potential in vitro anthelmintic properties against the free-living model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and against the cattle filarial parasite Onchocerca ochengi. Worms were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of fruit extract, fractions and pure compounds. The effects on mortality were monitored after 48 h. The plant extract and all of the pure tested compounds were active against O. ochengi (LC50 ranging from 1.2 to 11.5 µg/mL on males) and C. elegans (LC50 ranging from 33.8 to 350 µg/mL on wild type). While high LC50 were required for the effects of the compounds on C. elegans, very low LC50 were required against O. ochengi. Importantly, tests for acute oral toxicity (lowest dose: 10 mg/kg) in Wistar rats demonstrated that crude extract and pure compounds were non-toxic and safe to use. Additionally, the results of cytotoxicity tests with the Caco-2 cell line (CC50 ranging from 47.1 to 93.2 µg/mL) confirmed the absence of significant toxicity of the crude extract and pure compounds. These results are in good accordance with the use of A. nilotica against nematode infections by traditional healers, herdsmen and pastoralists in Cameroon. View Full-Text
Keywords: onchocerciasis; Acacia nilotica; Caenorhabditis elegans; Onchocerca ochengi; proanthocyanidins onchocerciasis; Acacia nilotica; Caenorhabditis elegans; Onchocerca ochengi; proanthocyanidins
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Dikti Vildina, J.; Kalmobe, J.; Djafsia, B.; Schmidt, T.J.; Liebau, E.; Ndjonka, D. Anti-Onchocerca and Anti-Caenorhabditis Activity of a Hydro-Alcoholic Extract from the Fruits of Acacia nilotica and Some Proanthocyanidin Derivatives. Molecules 2017, 22, 748.

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