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Molecules 2017, 22(5), 680; doi:10.3390/molecules22050680

Innovative “Green” and Novel Strategies for the Extraction of Bioactive Added Value Compounds from Citrus Wastes—A Review

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Nutrition and Food Science Area, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Forensic Medicine Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitat de València, Avda. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 9, Turin 10125, Italy
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, c/Galicia, 4, San Ciprián de Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain
Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003, Israel
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 11 March 2017 / Revised: 18 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Production of Bioactive Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3686 KB, uploaded 27 April 2017]   |  


Citrus is a major processed crop that results in large quantities of wastes and by-products rich in various bioactive compounds such as pectins, water soluble and insoluble antioxidants and essential oils. While some of those wastes are currently valorised by various technologies (yet most are discarded or used for feed), effective, non-toxic and profitable extraction strategies could further significantly promote the valorisation and provide both increased profits and high quality bioactives. The present review will describe and summarize the latest works concerning novel and greener methods for valorisation of citrus by-products. The outcomes and effectiveness of those technologies such as microwaves, ultrasound, pulsed electric fields and high pressure is compared both to conventional valorisation technologies and between the novel technologies themselves in order to highlight the advantages and potential scalability of these so-called “enabling technologies”. In many cases the reported novel technologies can enable a valorisation extraction process that is “greener” compared to the conventional technique due to a lower energy consumption and reduced utilization of toxic solvents. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus wastes; ultrasound; pulsed electric fields; microwaves; high pressure; supercritical CO2 citrus wastes; ultrasound; pulsed electric fields; microwaves; high pressure; supercritical CO2

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Putnik, P.; Bursać Kovačević, D.; Režek Jambrak, A.; Barba, F.J.; Cravotto, G.; Binello, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.; Shpigelman, A. Innovative “Green” and Novel Strategies for the Extraction of Bioactive Added Value Compounds from Citrus Wastes—A Review. Molecules 2017, 22, 680.

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