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Molecules 2017, 22(4), 609; doi:10.3390/molecules22040609

Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Casein Hydrolysate Produced Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Combined with Proteolytic Enzymes

1
Centre for Pharmacy & Health Research, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, 11361-87 Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada
2
Center for Nutraceutical and Pharmaceutical Materials, Myongji University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 449-728, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Giancarlo Cravotto and Francisco J. Barba
Received: 9 March 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Production of Bioactive Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2075 KB, uploaded 11 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Casein-derived peptides are shown to possess radical scavenging and metal chelating properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate novel anti-inflammatory properties of casein hydrolysates (CH) produced by an eco-friendly process that combines high hydrostatic pressure with enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH). Casein was hydrolysed by different proteases, including flavourzyme (Fla), savinase (Sav), thermolysin (Ther), trypsin (Try), and elastase (Ela) at 0.1, 50, 100, and 200 MPa pressure levels under various enzyme-to-substrate ratios and incubation times. Casein hydrolysates were evaluated for the degree of hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight distribution patterns, and anti-inflammatory properties in chemical and cellular models. Hydrolysates produced using HHP-EH exhibited higher DH values and proportions of smaller peptides compared to atmospheric pressure-enzymatic hydrolysis (AP-EH). Among five enzymes, Fla-digested HHP-EH-CH (HHP-Fla-CH) showed significantly higher antioxidant properties than AP-Fla-CH. The anti-inflammatory properties of HHP-Fla-CH were also observed by significantly reduced nitric oxide and by the suppression of the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that 59% of the amino acids of the peptides in HHP-Fla-CH were composed of proline, valine, and leucine, indicating the potential anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the HHP-EH method provides a promising technology to produce bioactive peptides from casein in an eco-friendly process. View Full-Text
Keywords: casein; enzymatic hydrolysis; high hydrostatic pressure; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammation casein; enzymatic hydrolysis; high hydrostatic pressure; antioxidant activity; anti-inflammation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bamdad, F.; Shin, S.H.; Suh, J.-W.; Nimalaratne, C.; Sunwoo, H. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Casein Hydrolysate Produced Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Combined with Proteolytic Enzymes. Molecules 2017, 22, 609.

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