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Molecules 2017, 22(4), 568; doi:10.3390/molecules22040568

Barbatic Acid Offers a New Possibility for Control of Biomphalaria Glabrata and Schistosomiasis

1
Departamento de Bioquímica e Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901, Brazil
2
Departamento de Radiobiologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami LIKA, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901, Brazil
4
Laboratório de Síntese e Isolamento Molecular, Centro Acadêmico de Vitória de Santo Antão, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, PE 50670-901, Brazil
5
Departamento de Ciências Geográficas, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE 50670-901, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sophie Tomasi
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichens: Chemistry, Ecological and Biological Activities)
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Abstract

This study evaluated the biological activity of an ether extract and barbatic acid (BAR) from Cladia aggregata on embryos and adult mollusks of Biomphalaria glabrata, cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and the microcrustacean Artemia salina. The ether extract and BAR were obtained by successive extractions with diethyl ether. The obtained extracts were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the ether extract exerted embryotoxic effects at 50 and 100 µg/mL and molluscicidal effects at 20 and 25 µg/mL. BAR exhibited no embryotoxicity, and its molluscicidal concentration was equal to that of the ether extract. However, after 60 min of exposure, 1 µg/mL BAR presented cercaricidal activity against the parasite S. mansoni at the second larval stage. Neither substance induced toxicity against A. salina. These results indicate the potential molluscicidal activities of the ether extract and BAR against B. glabrata and S. mansoni cercariae. In addition to these effects, there was a lack of toxicity against the aquatic environment and no damage to the biota, indicating the potential of these products for large-scale control and/or eradication of schistosomiasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cladia aggregata; embryotoxicity; molluscicidal activity; environmental toxicity; lichen substances; mollusks Cladia aggregata; embryotoxicity; molluscicidal activity; environmental toxicity; lichen substances; mollusks
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Martins, M.C.B.; Silva, M.C.; Silva, H.A.M.F.; Silva, L.R.S.; Albuquerque, M.C.P.A.; Aires, A.L.; Falcão, E.P.S.; Pereira, E.C.; de Melo, A.M.M.A.; da Silva, N.H. Barbatic Acid Offers a New Possibility for Control of Biomphalaria Glabrata and Schistosomiasis. Molecules 2017, 22, 568.

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