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Molecules 2017, 22(3), 425; doi:10.3390/molecules22030425

Which Specialized Metabolites Does the Native Subantarctic Gastropod Notodiscus hookeri Extract from the Consumption of the Lichens Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata?

1
Université Bretagne–Loire, Université de Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6553 (ECOBIO), 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes CEDEX, France
2
Université Bretagne–Loire, Université de Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226 (ISCR), 2 Avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes CEDEX, France
3
Université Bretagne–Loire, Université de Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6164 (IETR), 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes CEDEX, France
4
Université Midi–Pyrénées, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lichens: Chemistry, Ecological and Biological Activities)
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Abstract

Notodiscus hookeri is the only representative of terrestrial gastropods on Possession Island and exclusively feeds on lichens. The known toxicity of various lichen metabolites to plant-eating invertebrates led us to propose that N. hookeri evolved means to protect itself from their adverse effects. To validate this assumption, the current study focused on the consumption of two lichen species: Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata. A controlled feeding experiment was designed to understand how the snail copes with the unpalatable and/or toxic compounds produced by these lichen species. The occurrence of two snail ecophenotypes, represented by a mineral shell and an organic shell, led to address the question of a metabolic response specific to the phenotype. Snails were fed for two months with one of these lichens and the chemical profiles of biological samples of N. hookeri (i.e., crop, digestive gland, intestine, and feces) were established by HPLC-DAD-MS and compared to that of the lichens. N. hookeri appears as a generalist lichen feeder able to consume toxic metabolite-containing lichens, independently of the ecophenotype. The digestive gland did not sequester lichen metabolites. The snail metabolism might be based on four non-exclusive processes according to the concerned metabolites (avoidance, passive transport, hydrolysis, and excretion). View Full-Text
Keywords: lichens; snails; chemical ecology; Crozet Archipelago; Notodiscus hookeri; Usnea taylorii; Pseudocyphellaria crocata lichens; snails; chemical ecology; Crozet Archipelago; Notodiscus hookeri; Usnea taylorii; Pseudocyphellaria crocata
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gadea, A.; Le Pogam, P.; Biver, G.; Boustie, J.; Le Lamer, A.-C.; Le Dévéhat, F.; Charrier, M. Which Specialized Metabolites Does the Native Subantarctic Gastropod Notodiscus hookeri Extract from the Consumption of the Lichens Usnea taylorii and Pseudocyphellaria crocata? Molecules 2017, 22, 425.

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