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Molecules 2017, 22(3), 457; doi:10.3390/molecules22030457

Optimization of Conditions for Cyanidin-3-OGlucoside (C3G) Nanoliposome Production by Response Surface Methodology and Cellular Uptake Studies in Caco-2 Cells

1
Zhejiang Proceincial Key Laboratory of Biometrology and Inspection and Quarantine, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China
2
Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 3399 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou 310051, China
3
Food Science Institute, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 298 Desheng Road, Hangzhou 310021, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract

We aimed to optimize the formulation of C3G nanoliposomes using response surface methodology. Additionally, we evaluated the stability, particle change, and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of C3G nanoliposomes under different temperatures and storage durations, as well as in simulated gastrointestinal juice (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid. The morphology of C3G nanoliposomes was observed by transmission electron microscope. The ability of C3G nanoliposomes to affect cancer cell morphology and inhibit cancer cell proliferation was studied with Caco-2 cells. Reverse-phase evaporation method is a simple and efficient method for liposome preparation. The optimal preparation conditions for this method were as follows: C3G concentration of 0.17 mg/mL, phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol ratio of 2.87, and rotary evaporation temperature of 41.41 °C. At optimal conditions, the particle size and EE of the C3G nanoliposomes were 165.78 ± 4.3 nm and 70.43% ± 1.95%, respectively. The C3G nanoliposomes showed an acceptable stability in SGF at 37 °C for 4 h, but were unstable under extended storage durations and high temperatures. Moreover, our results showed that different concentrations of C3G nanoliposomes affected the morphology and inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: C3G; nanoliposomes; response surface methodology; stability; cell viability C3G; nanoliposomes; response surface methodology; stability; cell viability
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Liang, T.; Guan, R.; Shen, H.; Xia, Q.; Liu, M. Optimization of Conditions for Cyanidin-3-OGlucoside (C3G) Nanoliposome Production by Response Surface Methodology and Cellular Uptake Studies in Caco-2 Cells. Molecules 2017, 22, 457.

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