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Molecules 2017, 22(3), 396; doi:10.3390/molecules22030396

Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction Conditions for Improving Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities In Vitro from Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. Residues

1
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212001, China
2
School of food and biological engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
3
School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
4
Institute of life sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francisco J. Barba and Giancarlo Cravotto
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Production of Bioactive Natural Products)
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Abstract

Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration (X1: 1.5%–2.5%), extraction time (X2: 20–30 min) and extraction temperature (X3: 40–60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO4 equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve extraction yield and enhance the antioxidant and antitumor activities of the extracts. The phenolic extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa had significant antioxidant and antitumor activities, which could be used as a source of potential antioxidant and antitumor agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb.; stems; ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction; antioxidant activity; antitumor activity; response surface methodology Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb.; stems; ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction; antioxidant activity; antitumor activity; response surface methodology
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Li, F.; Mao, Y.-D.; Wang, Y.-F.; Raza, A.; Qiu, L.-P.; Xu, X.-Q. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction Conditions for Improving Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities In Vitro from Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. Residues. Molecules 2017, 22, 396.

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