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Molecules 2017, 22(2), 313; doi:10.3390/molecules22020313

Accumulation of Carotenoids and Metabolic Profiling in Different Cultivars of Tagetes Flowers

1
Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
2
National Institute of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-851, Korea
3
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Science & Technology Policy Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs, Sejong-si 30110, Korea
5
Division of Life Sciences and Convergence Research Center for Insect Vectors, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 11 December 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 11 February 2017 / Published: 18 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2216 KB, uploaded 18 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Species of Tagetes, which belong to the family Asteraceae show different characteristics including, bloom size, shape, and color; plant size; and leaf shape. In this study, we determined the differences in primary metabolites and carotenoid yields among six cultivars from two Tagetes species, T. erecta and T. patula. In total, we detected seven carotenoids in the examined cultivars: violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. In all the cultivars, lutein was the most abundant carotenoid. Furthermore, the contents of each carotenoid in flowers varied depending on the cultivar. Principal component analysis (PCA) facilitated metabolic discrimination between Tagetes cultivars, with the exception of Inca Yellow and Discovery Orange. Moreover, PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) results provided a clear discrimination between T. erecta and T. patula. Primary metabolites, including xylose, citric acid, valine, glycine, and galactose were the main components facilitating separation of the species. Positive relationships were apparent between carbon-rich metabolites, including those of the TCA cycle and sugar metabolism, and carotenoids. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tagetes; marigold; carotenoid; metabolic profiling; GC-TOFMS Tagetes; marigold; carotenoid; metabolic profiling; GC-TOFMS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Park, Y.J.; Park, S.-Y.; Valan Arasu, M.; Al-Dhabi, N.A.; Ahn, H.-G.; Kim, J.K.; Park, S.U. Accumulation of Carotenoids and Metabolic Profiling in Different Cultivars of Tagetes Flowers. Molecules 2017, 22, 313.

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