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Molecules 2017, 22(12), 2064; doi:10.3390/molecules22122064

Upconversion Luminescence Sensitized pH-Nanoprobes

Department of Chemistry, School of Physics and Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Korea
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Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lanthanide Luminescence: Fundamental Research and Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4761 KB, uploaded 25 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Photon upconversion materials, featuring excellent photophysical properties, are promising for bio-medical research due to their low autofluorescence, non-cytotoxicity, low photobleaching and high photostability. Upconversion based pH-nanoprobes are attracting considerable interest due to their superiority over pH-sensitive molecular indicators and metal nanoparticles. Herein, we review the advances in upconversion based pH-nanoprobes, the first time in the seven years since their discovery in 2009. With a brief discussion on the upconversion materials and upconversion processes, the progress in this field has been overviewed, along with the toxicity and biodistribution of upconversion materials for intracellular application. We strongly believe that this survey will encourage the further pursuit of intense research for designing molecular pH-sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical sensors; molecular probes; pH-sensors; upconversion; photoluminescence optical sensors; molecular probes; pH-sensors; upconversion; photoluminescence
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mahata, M.K.; Bae, H.; Lee, K.T. Upconversion Luminescence Sensitized pH-Nanoprobes. Molecules 2017, 22, 2064.

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