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Molecules 2017, 22(11), 1850; doi:10.3390/molecules22111850

Sustainable Bio-Based Phenol-Formaldehyde Resoles Using Hydrolytically Depolymerized Kraft Lignin

1
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada
2
Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignin for Energy, Chemicals and Materials)
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Abstract

In this study bio-based bio-phenol-formaldehyde (BPF) resoles were prepared using hydrolytically depolymerized Kraft lignin (DKL) as bio-phenol to partially substitute phenol. The effects of phenol substitution ratio, weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of DKL and formaldehyde-to-phenol (F/P) ratio were also investigated to find the optimum curing temperature for BPF resoles. The results indicated that DKL with Mw ~ 1200 g/mol provides a curing temperature of less than 180 °C for any substitution level, provided that F/P ratios are controlled. Incorporation of lignin reduced the curing temperature of the resin, however, higher Mw DKL negatively affected the curing process. For any level of lignin Mw, the curing temperature was found to increase with lower F/P ratios at lower phenol substitution levels. At 25% and 50% phenol substitution, increasing the F/P ratio allows for synthesis of resoles with lower curing temperatures. Increasing the phenol substitution from 50% to 75% allows for a broader range of lignin Mw to attain low curing temperatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kraft lignin; depolymerized Kraft lignin; phenol-formaldehyde resoles; curing temperature; optimization Kraft lignin; depolymerized Kraft lignin; phenol-formaldehyde resoles; curing temperature; optimization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siddiqui, H.; Mahmood, N.; Yuan, Z.; Crapulli, F.; Dessbesell, L.; Rizkalla, A.; Ray, A.; Xu, C.(. Sustainable Bio-Based Phenol-Formaldehyde Resoles Using Hydrolytically Depolymerized Kraft Lignin. Molecules 2017, 22, 1850.

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