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Molecules 2017, 22(10), 1692; doi:10.3390/molecules22101692

β-Amyloid and the Pathomechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Comprehensive View

1
Department of Medical Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm Square 8, Hungary
2
MTA-SZTE Biomimetic Systems Research Group and Department of Medical Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm Square 8, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 25th Anniversary of the Amyloid Hypothesis and Alzheimer Disease)
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Abstract

Protein dyshomeostasis is the common mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Aging is the key risk factor, as the capacity of the proteostasis network declines during aging. Different cellular stress conditions result in the up-regulation of the neurotrophic, neuroprotective amyloid precursor protein (APP). Enzymatic processing of APP may result in formation of toxic Aβ aggregates (β-amyloids). Protein folding is the basis of life and death. Intracellular Aβ affects the function of subcellular organelles by disturbing the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria cross-talk and causing severe Ca2+-dysregulation and lipid dyshomeostasis. The extensive and complex network of proteostasis declines during aging and is not able to maintain the balance between production and disposal of proteins. The effectivity of cellular pathways that safeguard cells against proteotoxic stress (molecular chaperones, aggresomes, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy) declines with age. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causes dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and thus the Aβ-clearance from brain-to-blood decreases. Microglia-mediated clearance of Aβ also declines, Aβ accumulates in the brain and causes neuroinflammation. Recognition of the above mentioned complex pathogenesis pathway resulted in novel drug targets in AD research. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; protein and lipid dyshomeostasis; APP; intracellular Aβ; ER-mitochondrial axis; Ca2+ dysregulation; molecular chaperones; autophagy; neuroinflammation; Aβ-clearance Alzheimer’s disease; protein and lipid dyshomeostasis; APP; intracellular Aβ; ER-mitochondrial axis; Ca2+ dysregulation; molecular chaperones; autophagy; neuroinflammation; Aβ-clearance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Penke, B.; Bogár, F.; Fülöp, L. β-Amyloid and the Pathomechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Comprehensive View. Molecules 2017, 22, 1692.

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