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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 25; doi:10.3390/molecules22010025

Impact of Bee Venom Enzymes on Diseases and Immune Responses

1
Laboratory of Preventive and Integrative Biomedicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
2
Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 3 December 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Natural Peptides As A Pipeline For Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2005 KB, uploaded 27 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Bee venom (BV) is used to treat many diseases and exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antimutagenic, radioprotective, anti-nociceptive immunity promoting, hepatocyte protective and anti-cancer activity. According to the literature, BV contains several enzymes, including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase B, hyaluronidase, acid phosphatase and α-glucosidase. Recent studies have also reported the detection of different classes of enzymes in BV, including esterases, proteases and peptidases, protease inhibitors and other important enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Nevertheless, the physiochemical properties and functions of each enzyme class and their mechanisms remain unclear. Various pharmacotherapeutic effects of some of the BV enzymes have been reported in several studies. At present, ongoing research aims to characterize each enzyme and elucidate their specific biological roles. This review gathers all the current knowledge on BV enzymes and their specific mechanisms in regulating various immune responses and physiological changes to provide a basis for future therapies for various diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee venom; enzymes; protein; toxin; pharmacotherapeutics; Apis mellifera bee venom; enzymes; protein; toxin; pharmacotherapeutics; Apis mellifera
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Hossen, M.S.; Shapla, U.M.; Gan, S.H.; Khalil, M.I. Impact of Bee Venom Enzymes on Diseases and Immune Responses. Molecules 2017, 22, 25.

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