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Molecules 2017, 22(1), 121; doi:10.3390/molecules22010121

Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Products

1
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Scienze delle Produzioni Alimentari, Via G. Amendola 122/O, I-70126 Bari, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Farmacia–Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, Consorzio C.I.N.M.P.I.S., Via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hua Zhao and Derek J. McPhee
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 3 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
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Abstract

An unprecedented, environmentally friendly, and faster method for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) (a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and largely widespread in nature, in wheat and derived products) has, for the first time, been set up and validated using choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) (e.g., ChCl/glycerol (1:2) and ChCl/ urea (1:2) up to 40% (w/w) water) as privileged, green, and biodegradable extraction solvents. This also reduces worker exposure to toxic chemicals. Results are comparable to those obtained using conventional, hazardous and volatile organic solvents (VOCs) typical of the standard and official methods. OTA recovery from spiked durum wheat samples, in particular, was to up to 89% versus 93% using the traditional acetonitrile-water mixture with a repeatability of the results (RSDr) of 7%. Compatibility of the DES mixture with the antibodies of the immunoaffinity column was excellent as it was able to retain up to 96% of the OTA. Recovery and repeatability for durum wheat, bread crumbs, and biscuits proved to be within the specifications required by the current European Commission (EC) regulation. Good results in terms of accuracy and precision were achieved with mean recoveries between 70% (durum wheat) and 88% (bread crumbs) and an RSDr between 2% (biscuits) and 7% (bread). View Full-Text
Keywords: deep eutectic solvents; Ochratoxin A; food chemistry; analytical method; green solvents deep eutectic solvents; Ochratoxin A; food chemistry; analytical method; green solvents
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MDPI and ACS Style

Piemontese, L.; Perna, F.M.; Logrieco, A.; Capriati, V.; Solfrizzo, M. Deep Eutectic Solvents as Novel and Effective Extraction Media for Quantitative Determination of Ochratoxin A in Wheat and Derived Products. Molecules 2017, 22, 121.

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