Next Article in Journal
A Prenylated Xanthone, Cudratricusxanthone A, Isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation through Inhibition of NF-κB and p38 MAPK Pathways in BV2 Microglia
Next Article in Special Issue
Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces
Previous Article in Journal
Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Phytotoxic Activities of Peganum harmala Seed Essential Oils from Five Different Localities in Northern Africa
Previous Article in Special Issue
Formation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Wine: Interactions between Copper and Sulfur Dioxide
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1238; doi:10.3390/molecules21091238

Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Silicone and Polylactic Acid-Based Remedial Treatments for Elevated Methoxypyrazine Levels in Wine

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
Department of Biological Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada
National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia
Sustainability Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD 4556, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Susan E. Ebeler and Helene Hopfer
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 16 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [993 KB, uploaded 16 September 2016]   |  


Alkylmethoxypyrazines (MPs) are a class of compounds that can elicit undesirable aroma and flavor characteristics in wine, and resist remediation using traditional wine making approaches. MPs are grape-derived constituents as well as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles present during wine processing; the latter eliciting an off-flavor referred to as ‘ladybug taint’. In this study we investigated the capacity of two plastic polymers—one silicone-based, the other polylactic acid-based—applied with varying surface areas to reduce concentrations of isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP), sec-butylmethoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutylmethoxypyrazine (IBMP) in a Merlot wine using multi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME-MDGCMS). The impact of treatments on the sensory characteristics of the wine (descriptive analysis) and volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) (SPME-MDGCMS) was also investigated. Results showed substantial reductions for all of the target odorants: up to 38%, 44% and 39% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the silicone polymer, and up to 75%, 78% and 77% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the polylactic acid polymer. These polymers had no or minimal effect on VOCs at applications of 200 cm2/L for silicone or for all polylactic acid treatments. Sensory impacts were less clear, but generally showed minimal effect from the treatments. Taken overall, the data confirm the utility of both polylactic acid and silicone polymers in reducing elevated levels of grape-derived MPs, as well as potentially improving wine contaminated by ladybug taint. View Full-Text
Keywords: methoxypyrazines; ladybug taint; silicone; polylactic acid methoxypyrazines; ladybug taint; silicone; polylactic acid

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Botezatu, A.; Kemp, B.S.; Pickering, G.J. Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Silicone and Polylactic Acid-Based Remedial Treatments for Elevated Methoxypyrazine Levels in Wine. Molecules 2016, 21, 1238.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top