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Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1194; doi:10.3390/molecules21091194

Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Essential Oil from Clove Buds against Staphylococcus aureus

1
College of Food Sciences, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China
2
College of Life Sciences, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ifedayo Victor Ogungbe
Received: 3 August 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8430 KB, uploaded 8 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

The essential oil of clove has a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities and is widely used in the medicine, fragrance and flavoring industries. In this work, 22 components of the essential oil obtained from clove buds were identified. Eugenol was the major component (76.23%). The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.625 mg/mL, and the antibacterial effects depended on its concentration and action time. Kill-time assays also confirmed the essential oil had a significant effect on the growth rate of surviving S. aureus. We hypothesized that the essential oil may interact with the cell wall and membrane first. On the one hand it destroys cell wall and membranes, next causing the losses of vital intracellular materials, which finally result in the bacterial death. Besides, essential oil penetrates to the cytoplasmic membrane or enters inside the cell after destruction of cell structure, and then inhibits the normal synthesis of DNA and proteins that are required for bacterial growth. These results suggested that the effects of the clove essential oil on the growth inhibition of S. aureus may be at the molecular level rather than only physical damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oil; Staphylococcus aureus; alkaline phosphatase; membrane permeability; electron microscope; protein; DNA essential oil; Staphylococcus aureus; alkaline phosphatase; membrane permeability; electron microscope; protein; DNA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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    Description: Figure S1. Effects of different concentrations of essential oil on S. aureus. Cup 0, control; cup1, 12.5% essential oil; cup 2, 25% essential oil Figure S2. Plates after 24 h in modified resazurin assay (pink colour indicates growth and blue means inhibition of growth). column a, sterility control (broth + indicator), no bacteria; column b, sterility control (test compound in serial dilution + broth + indicator), no bacteria; columns c and d, control without drug (bacteria + broth + indicator); columns e and f, test essential oil (in serial dilution in wells A–H + broth + indicator + bacteria); columns g-m, replicates of columns a-f, respectively; lines A-H, treatment with 0.39%-50% essential oil, respectively.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, J.-G.; Liu, T.; Hu, Q.-P.; Cao, X.-M. Chemical Composition, Antibacterial Properties and Mechanism of Action of Essential Oil from Clove Buds against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 2016, 21, 1194.

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