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Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1171; doi:10.3390/molecules21091171

Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana)

1
Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 27 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s) of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone), and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside). Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum. View Full-Text
Keywords: finger millet; Fusarium sp.; endophyte; fungus; Penicillium sp.; 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone; dehydrocostus lactone; harpagoside finger millet; Fusarium sp.; endophyte; fungus; Penicillium sp.; 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone; dehydrocostus lactone; harpagoside
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mousa, W.K.; Schwan, A.L.; Raizada, M.N. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana). Molecules 2016, 21, 1171.

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