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Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1111; doi:10.3390/molecules21091111

Ball Milling Assisted Solvent and Catalyst Free Synthesis of Benzimidazoles and Their Derivatives

Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Yanbu, Taibah University, Yanbu, Saudi Arabia
Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Chemistry Department, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo 11757, Egypt
Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21321, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Koichi Komatsu and Carsten Bolm
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 13 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1177 KB, uploaded 24 August 2016]   |  


Benzoic acid and o-phenylenediamine efficiently reacted under the green solvent-free Ball Milling method. Several reaction parameters were investigated such as rotation frequency; milling balls weight and milling time. The optimum reaction condition was milling with 56.6 g weight of balls at 20 Hz frequency for one hour milling time. The study was extended for synthesis of a series of benzimidazol-2-one or benzimidazol-2-thione using different aldehydes; carboxylic acids; urea; thiourea or ammonium thiocyanate with o-phenylenediamine. Moreover; the alkylation of benzimidazolone or benzimidazolthione using ethyl chloroacetate was also studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ball Milling; mechanochemistry; green chemistry; combinatorial chemistry; benzimidazoles Ball Milling; mechanochemistry; green chemistry; combinatorial chemistry; benzimidazoles

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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EL-Sayed, T.H.; Aboelnaga, A.; Hagar, M. Ball Milling Assisted Solvent and Catalyst Free Synthesis of Benzimidazoles and Their Derivatives. Molecules 2016, 21, 1111.

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