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Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1111; doi:10.3390/molecules21091111

Ball Milling Assisted Solvent and Catalyst Free Synthesis of Benzimidazoles and Their Derivatives

1
Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Yanbu, Taibah University, Yanbu, Saudi Arabia
2
Faculty of Women for Arts, Science and Education, Chemistry Department, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo 11757, Egypt
3
Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21321, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Koichi Komatsu and Carsten Bolm
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 13 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanochemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1177 KB, uploaded 24 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Benzoic acid and o-phenylenediamine efficiently reacted under the green solvent-free Ball Milling method. Several reaction parameters were investigated such as rotation frequency; milling balls weight and milling time. The optimum reaction condition was milling with 56.6 g weight of balls at 20 Hz frequency for one hour milling time. The study was extended for synthesis of a series of benzimidazol-2-one or benzimidazol-2-thione using different aldehydes; carboxylic acids; urea; thiourea or ammonium thiocyanate with o-phenylenediamine. Moreover; the alkylation of benzimidazolone or benzimidazolthione using ethyl chloroacetate was also studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ball Milling; mechanochemistry; green chemistry; combinatorial chemistry; benzimidazoles Ball Milling; mechanochemistry; green chemistry; combinatorial chemistry; benzimidazoles
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EL-Sayed, T.H.; Aboelnaga, A.; Hagar, M. Ball Milling Assisted Solvent and Catalyst Free Synthesis of Benzimidazoles and Their Derivatives. Molecules 2016, 21, 1111.

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