Marine Toxin Okadaic Acid Affects the Immune Function of Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians)
AbstractOkadaic acid (OA) is produced by dinoflagellates during harmful algal blooms and is a diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxin. This toxin is particularly problematic for bivalves that are cultured for human consumption. This study aimed to reveal the effects of exposure to OA on the immune responses of bay scallop, Argopecten irradians. Various immunological parameters were assessed (total hemocyte counts (THC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and nitric oxide (NO) in the hemolymph of scallops at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure (hpe) to different concentrations of OA (50, 100, and 500 nM). Moreover, the expression of immune-system-related genes (CLT-6, FREP, HSP90, MT, and Cu/ZnSOD) was also measured. Results showed that ROS, MDA, and NO levels and LDH activity were enhanced after exposure to different concentrations of OA; however, both THC and GSH decreased between 24–48 hpe. The expression of immune-system-related genes was also assessed at different time points during the exposure period. Overall, our results suggest that exposure to OA had negative effects on immune system function, increased oxygenic stress, and disrupted metabolism of bay scallops. View Full-Text
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Chi, C.; Giri, S.S.; Jun, J.W.; Kim, H.J.; Yun, S.; Kim, S.G.; Park, S.C. Marine Toxin Okadaic Acid Affects the Immune Function of Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians). Molecules 2016, 21, 1108.
Chi C, Giri SS, Jun JW, Kim HJ, Yun S, Kim SG, Park SC. Marine Toxin Okadaic Acid Affects the Immune Function of Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians). Molecules. 2016; 21(9):1108.Chicago/Turabian Style
Chi, Cheng; Giri, Sib S.; Jun, Jin W.; Kim, Hyoun J.; Yun, Saekil; Kim, Sang G.; Park, Se C. 2016. "Marine Toxin Okadaic Acid Affects the Immune Function of Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians)." Molecules 21, no. 9: 1108.
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