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Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1002; doi:10.3390/molecules21081002

Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Controlled Protein and Peptide Delivery: Future Implications for Ocular Delivery

Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 7 York Road, Parktown 2193, South Africa
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Academic Editor: Chih-Chang Chu
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 26 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stimuli-Responsive Biomaterials in Biomedical Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1920 KB, uploaded 30 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation. The ocular route remains of great interest, particularly for responsive delivery of macromolecules due to the anatomy and physiology of the eye that makes it a sensitive and complex environment. Research in this field is slowly gaining attention as this could be the breakthrough in ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. This work reviews stimuli-responsive polymeric delivery systems, their use in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides as well as examples of proteins and peptides used in the treatment of ocular disorders. Stimuli reviewed include pH, temperature, enzymes, light, ultrasound and magnetic field. In addition, it discusses the current progress in responsive ocular drug delivery. Furthermore, it explores future prospects in the use of stimuli-responsive polymers for ocular delivery of proteins and peptides. Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great potential in improving the delivery of ocular therapeutics, therefore there is a need to consider them in order to guarantee a local, sustained and ideal delivery of ocular proteins and peptides, evading tissue invasion and systemic side-effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioavailability; in situ; ocular barriers; ocular delivery; pre-corneal elimination; protein and peptide delivery; stimuli responsive polymer bioavailability; in situ; ocular barriers; ocular delivery; pre-corneal elimination; protein and peptide delivery; stimuli responsive polymer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mahlumba, P.; Choonara, Y.E.; Kumar, P.; du Toit, L.C.; Pillay, V. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Controlled Protein and Peptide Delivery: Future Implications for Ocular Delivery. Molecules 2016, 21, 1002.

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