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Molecules 2016, 21(7), 921; doi:10.3390/molecules21070921

Metabolomics Provides Quality Characterization of Commercial Gochujang (Fermented Pepper Paste)

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
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Academic Editor: Marcello Iriti
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 8 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
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Abstract

To identify the major factors contributing to the quality of commercial gochujang (fermented red pepper paste), metabolites were profiled by mass spectrometry. In principal component analysis, cereal type (wheat, brown rice, and white rice) and species of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. annuum cv. Chung-yang, and C. frutescens) affected clustering patterns. Relative amino acid and citric acid levels were significantly higher in wheat gochujang than in rice gochujang. Sucrose, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and lysophospholipid levels were high in brown-rice gochujang, whereas glucose, maltose, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels were high in white-rice gochujang. The relative capsaicinoid and luteolin derivative contents in gochujang were affected by the hot pepper species used. Gochujang containing C. annuum cv. Chung-yang and C. frutescens showed high capsaicinoid levels. The luteolin derivative level was high in gochujang containing C. frutescens. These metabolite variations in commercial gochujang may be related to different physicochemical phenotypes and antioxidant activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: gochujang; quality characterization; metabolomics; GC-TOF-MS; UHPLC-LTQ-ESI-IT-MS/MS; antioxidant activity gochujang; quality characterization; metabolomics; GC-TOF-MS; UHPLC-LTQ-ESI-IT-MS/MS; antioxidant activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, G.M.; Suh, D.H.; Jung, E.S.; Lee, C.H. Metabolomics Provides Quality Characterization of Commercial Gochujang (Fermented Pepper Paste). Molecules 2016, 21, 921.

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