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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 526; doi:10.3390/molecules21040526

The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties

1
College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210000, China
2
Department of Plant and Soil Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
3
Shanghai Honghua Horticulture Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200000, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 25 December 2015 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 21 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1737 KB, uploaded 21 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon–Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium wilt; disease incidence; DGGE; bacterial/fungi ratio; microbial community Fusarium wilt; disease incidence; DGGE; bacterial/fungi ratio; microbial community
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, S.; Chen, X.; Deng, S.; Dong, X.; Song, A.; Yao, J.; Fang, W.; Chen, F. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties. Molecules 2016, 21, 526.

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