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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 445; doi:10.3390/molecules21040445

In Vitro Activity of Selected West African Medicinal Plants against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease

1
Department of Clinical Pathology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra LG 581, Ghana
2
Antimicrobial Agents Unit, LPMPS, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé 812, Cameroon
3
Department of Bacteriology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra LG 581, Ghana
4
Department of Animal Experimentation, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra LG 581, Ghana
5
Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies (IMPM), Yaoundé 6163, Cameroon
6
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Ghana, Accra LG 43, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas J. Schmidt
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 13 April 2016
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Abstract

Buruli ulcer (BU) is the third most prevalent mycobacteriosis, after tuberculosis and leprosy. The currently recommended combination of rifampicin-streptomycin suffers from side effects and poor compliance, which leads to reliance on local herbal remedies. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial properties and toxicity of selected medicinal plants. Sixty-five extracts from 27 plant species were screened against Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium smegmatis, using the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA). The cytotoxicity of promising extracts was assayed on normal Chang liver cells by an MTT assay. Twenty five extracts showed activity with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 16 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL against M. smegmatis, while 17 showed activity against M. ulcerans with MIC values ranging from 125 µg/mL to 250 µg/mL. In most of the cases, plant extracts with antimycobacterial activity showed no cytotoxicity on normal human liver cells. Exception were Carica papaya, Cleistopholis patens, and Polyalthia suaveolens with 50% cell cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranging from 3.8 to 223 µg/mL. These preliminary results support the use of some West African plants in the treatment of Buruli ulcer. Meanwhile, further studies are required to isolate and characterize the active ingredients in the extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: medicinal plants; Buruli ulcer; cytotoxicity; Mycobacterium ulcerans medicinal plants; Buruli ulcer; cytotoxicity; Mycobacterium ulcerans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tsouh Fokou, P.V.; Kissi-Twum, A.A.; Yeboah-Manu, D.; Appiah-Opong, R.; Addo, P.; Tchokouaha Yamthe, L.R.; Ngoutane Mfopa, A.; Fekam Boyom, F.; Nyarko, A.K. In Vitro Activity of Selected West African Medicinal Plants against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease. Molecules 2016, 21, 445.

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