Next Article in Journal
On the High Sensitivity of the Electronic States of 1 nm Gold Particles to Pretreatments and Modifiers
Previous Article in Journal
Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2016, 21(4), 427; doi:10.3390/molecules21040427

Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes

Biochemical Process Engineering, Division of Chemical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå 971 87, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2016 / Accepted: 24 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [22885 KB, uploaded 30 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

A comparative study among different pretreatment methods used for the fractionation of the birch outer bark components, including steam explosion, hydrothermal and organosolv treatments based on the use of ethanol/water media, is reported. The residual solid fractions have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, 13C-solid-state NMR and morphological alterations after pretreatment were detected by scanning electron microscopy. The general chemical composition of the untreated and treated bark including determination of extractives, suberin, lignin and monosaccharides was also studied. Composition of the residual solid fraction and relative proportions of different components, as a function of the processing conditions, could be established. Organosolv treatment produces a suberin-rich solid fraction, while during hydrothermal and steam explosion treatment cleavage of polysaccharide bonds occurs. This work will provide a deeper fundamental knowledge of the bark chemical composition, thus increasing the utilization efficiency of birch outer bark and may create possibilities to up-scale the fractionation processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Betula pendula; outer bark; steam explosion pretreatment; organosolv pretreatment; suberin; chemical composition Betula pendula; outer bark; steam explosion pretreatment; organosolv pretreatment; suberin; chemical composition
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Karnaouri, A.; Rova, U.; Christakopoulos, P. Effect of Different Pretreatment Methods on Birch Outer Bark: New Biorefinery Routes. Molecules 2016, 21, 427.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top