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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 426; doi:10.3390/molecules21040426

Yeast Extract and Silver Nitrate Induce the Expression of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Genes and Induce the Accumulation of Rosmarinic Acid in Agastache rugosa Cell Culture

1
Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
2
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Horticulture, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea
4
Regional Innovation Center for Dental Science & Engineering, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tobias A. M. Gulder
Received: 10 January 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosynthesis of Natural Products)
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Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the role of yeast extract and silver nitrate on the enhancement of phenylpropanoid pathway genes and accumulation of rosmarinic acid in Agastache rugosa cell cultures. The treatment of cell cultures with yeast extract (500 mg/L) and silver nitrate (30 mg/L) for varying times enhanced the expression of genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway and the production of rosmarinic acid. The results indicated that the expression of RAS and HPPR was proportional to the amount of yeast extract and silver nitrate. The transcript levels of HPPR under yeast extract treatment were 1.84-, 1.97-, and 2.86-fold higher than the control treatments after 3, 6, and 12 h, respectively, whereas PAL expression under silver nitrate treatment was 52.31-fold higher than in the non-treated controls after 24 h of elicitation. The concentration of rosmarinic acid was directly proportional to the concentration of the applied elicitors. Yeast extract supplementation documented the highest amount of rosmarinic acid at 4.98 mg/g, whereas silver nitrate addition resulted in a comparatively lower amount of rosmarinic acid at 0.65 mg/g. In conclusion, addition of yeast extract to the cell cultures enhanced the accumulation of rosmarinic acid, which was evidenced by the expression levels of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes in A. rugosa. View Full-Text
Keywords: Agastache rugose; yeast extract; silver nitrate; phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes; rosmarinic acid Agastache rugose; yeast extract; silver nitrate; phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes; rosmarinic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, W.T.; Arasu, M.V.; Al-Dhabi, N.A.; Yeo, S.K.; Jeon, J.; Park, J.S.; Lee, S.Y.; Park, S.U. Yeast Extract and Silver Nitrate Induce the Expression of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Genes and Induce the Accumulation of Rosmarinic Acid in Agastache rugosa Cell Culture. Molecules 2016, 21, 426.

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