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Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1357; doi:10.3390/molecules21101357

Small versus Large Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles: Hyperthermia and Cell Uptake Properties

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Physics-Biophysics, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Pasteur 6, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, ‘‘Iuliu Hatieganu’’ University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Pasteur 6, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3
Faculty of Physics, “Babes Bolyai” University, Kogalniceanu 1, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4
Department of Reproduction Obstetrics and Veterinary Gynecology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Manastur 3-5, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
5
Department of Bionanoscopy, MedFuture Research Center for Advance Medicine, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Pasteur 4-6, 400337 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rodolphe Clerac
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
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Abstract

Efficient use of magnetic hyperthermia in clinical cancer treatment requires biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), with improved heating capabilities. Small (~34 nm) and large (~270 nm) Fe3O4-MNPs were synthesized by means of a polyol method in polyethylene-glycol (PEG) and ethylene-glycol (EG), respectively. They were systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and vibration sample magnetometry. Hyperthermia measurements showed that Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) dependence on the external alternating magnetic field amplitude (up to 65 kA/m, 355 kHz) presented a sigmoidal shape, with remarkable SAR saturation values of ~1400 W/gMNP for the small monocrystalline MNPs and only 400 W/gMNP for the large polycrystalline MNPs, in water. SAR values were slightly reduced in cell culture media, but decreased one order of magnitude in highly viscous PEG1000. Toxicity assays performed on four cell lines revealed almost no toxicity for the small MNPs and a very small level of toxicity for the large MNPs, up to a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. Cellular uptake experiments revealed that both MNPs penetrated the cells through endocytosis, in a time dependent manner and escaped the endosomes with a faster kinetics for large MNPs. Biodegradation of large MNPs inside cells involved an all-or-nothing mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyhedral iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles; large magnetic nanoparticles; polyethylene glycol; magnetic hyperthermia; specific absorption rate; cancer cells uptake; endocytosis; biodegradation polyhedral iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles; large magnetic nanoparticles; polyethylene glycol; magnetic hyperthermia; specific absorption rate; cancer cells uptake; endocytosis; biodegradation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iacovita, C.; Florea, A.; Dudric, R.; Pall, E.; Moldovan, A.I.; Tetean, R.; Stiufiuc, R.; Lucaciu, C.M. Small versus Large Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles: Hyperthermia and Cell Uptake Properties. Molecules 2016, 21, 1357.

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