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Molecules 2015, 20(8), 14103-14117; doi:10.3390/molecules200814103

The Efficacy and Underlying Mechanism of Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole on Citrus Canker

1,†,* , 2,†,* , 2
,
1,2
,
2
,
2
and
2
1
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering/Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
2
Guizhou Fruit Institute, Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guiyang 550025, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter J. Rutledge
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 14 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
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Abstract

The objectives of the current study were to isolate and identify the pathogen responsible for citrus canker and investigate the efficacy of sulfone derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety on controlling citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) under in vitro and field conditions. In an in vitro study, we tested eight sulfone derivatives against Xcc and the results demonstrated that compound 3 exhibited the best antibacterial activity against Xcc, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 1.23 μg/mL, which was even better than those of commercial bactericides Kocide 3000 (58.21 μg/mL) and Thiodiazole copper (77.04 μg/mL), respectively. Meanwhile, under field experiments, compound 3 treatments demonstrated the highest ability to reduce the disease of citrus canker in leaves and fruits in two different places relative to an untreated control as well as the commercial bactericides Kocide 3000 and Thiodiazole copper. Meanwhile, compound 3 could stimulate the increase in peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities in the navel orange leaves, causing marked enhancement of plant resistance against citrus canker. Moreover, compound 3 could damage the cell membranes, destruct the biofilm formation, inhibit the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), and affect the cell membrane permeability to restrain the growth of the bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfone derivatives; Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri; citrus canker; antibacterial bioassay; underlying mechanism sulfone derivatives; Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri; citrus canker; antibacterial bioassay; underlying mechanism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, P.; Ma, Y.; Zhou, J.; Luo, H.; Yan, J.; Mao, Y.; Wang, Z. The Efficacy and Underlying Mechanism of Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole on Citrus Canker. Molecules 2015, 20, 14103-14117.

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