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Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12623-12651; doi:10.3390/molecules200712623

Integrase Inhibitor Prodrugs: Approaches to Enhancing the Anti-HIV Activity of β-Diketo Acids

Center for Drug Discovery and College of Pharmacy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 6 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prodrugs)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1550 KB, uploaded 13 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

HIV integrase, encoded at the 3′-end of the HIV pol gene, is essential for HIV replication. This enzyme catalyzes the incorporation of HIV DNA into human DNA, which represents the point of “no-return” in HIV infection. Integrase is a significant target in anti-HIV drug discovery. This review article focuses largely on the design of integrase inhibitors that are β-diketo acids constructed on pyridinone scaffolds. Methodologies for synthesis of these compounds are discussed. Integrase inhibition data for the strand transfer (ST) step are compared with in vitro anti-HIV data. The review also examines the issue of the lack of correlation between the ST enzymology data and anti-HIV assay results. Because this disconnect appeared to be a problem associated with permeability, prodrugs of these inhibitors were designed and synthesized. Prodrugs dramatically improved the anti-HIV activity data. For example, for compound, 96, the anti-HIV activity (EC50) improved from 500 nM for this diketo acid to 9 nM for its prodrug 116. In addition, there was excellent correlation between the IC50 and IC90 ST enzymology data for 96 (6 nM and 97 nM, respectively) and the EC50 and EC90 anti-HIV data for its prodrug 116 (9 nM and 94 nM, respectively). Finally, it was confirmed that the prodrug 116 was rapidly hydrolyzed in cells to the active compound 96. View Full-Text
Keywords: prodrugs; HIV-1 integrase inhibitors; antiviral activity prodrugs; HIV-1 integrase inhibitors; antiviral activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nair, V.; Okello, M. Integrase Inhibitor Prodrugs: Approaches to Enhancing the Anti-HIV Activity of β-Diketo Acids. Molecules 2015, 20, 12623-12651.

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