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Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12061-12075; doi:10.3390/molecules200712061

The Antioxidant Properties and Inhibitory Effects on HepG2 Cells of Chicory Cultivated Using Three Different Kinds of Fertilizers in the Absence and Presence of Pesticides

1
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Chonbuk National University, 664-14 Duckjin-dong, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756, Korea
2
Clinical Trial Center for Functional Foods, Chonbuk National University Hospital, 20, Geonjiro, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-712, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 25 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 June 2015 / Published: 1 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [791 KB, uploaded 1 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

The objective of this study was to explore the antioxidant levels and anticancer properties of chicory cultivated using three different kinds of fertilizers (i.e., developed, organic, and chemical) in the presence and absence of pesticides. Phenolic phytochemicals, including total polyphenols and flavonoids, and antioxidant activities, including reducing power, ABTS+ and DPPH radical scavenging activity, were analyzed using several antioxidant assays. HepG2 cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay. The antioxidant properties of chicory were found to increase when cultivated with chemical fertilizer in the absence of pesticides. On the other hand, antioxidant capacity was higher in chicory cultivated with eco-developed fertilizer even in the presence of pesticides. Chicory grown using eco-developed or organic fertilizer was more effective in suppressing the proliferation of HepG2 cells when compared to chicory grown with chemical fertilizer. This effect was time dependent, regardless of treatment with or without pesticides. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of chicory were affected by the presence or absence of pesticides. However, developed and organic fertilizers showed a strong anti-proliferative effect against HepG2 cells, regardless of the presence or absence of pesticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: chicory; anti-oxidants; phenolic compounds; fertilizer; pesticide chicory; anti-oxidants; phenolic compounds; fertilizer; pesticide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yook, J.-S.; Kim, M.; Pichiah, P.B.; Jung, S.-J.; Chae, S.-W.; Cha, Y.-S. The Antioxidant Properties and Inhibitory Effects on HepG2 Cells of Chicory Cultivated Using Three Different Kinds of Fertilizers in the Absence and Presence of Pesticides. Molecules 2015, 20, 12061-12075.

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