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Molecules 2015, 20(6), 11090-11102; doi:10.3390/molecules200611090

Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat.) Flower

1
Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea
2
Department of Horticultural Science, College of Industrial Sciences, Kongju National University, Daehoe-ri, Yesan-kun, Chungnam 340-720, Korea
3
National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-851, Korea
4
Division of Life Sciences and Bio-Resource and Environmental Center, Incheon National University, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-772, Korea
5
Department of Biosystems Machinery Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea
6
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
7
Visiting Professor Program (VPP), King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 4 June 2015 / Published: 15 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1878 KB, uploaded 15 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

The flowers of twenty-three cultivars of Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat. were investigated to determine anthocyanin and carotenoid levels and to confirm the effects of the pigments on the flower colors using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The cultivars contained the anthocyanins cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3g) and cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl) glucoside (C3mg) and the following carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene. The cultivar “Magic” showed the greatest accumulation of total and individual anthocyanins, including C3g and C3gm. On the other hand, the highest level of lutein and zeaxanthin was noted in the cultivar “Il Weol”. The cultivar “Anastasia” contained the highest amount of carotenoids such as trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene, and 13-cis-β-carotene. The highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene was noted in the cultivar “Anastasia” and “Il Weol”. Our results suggested that ‘Magic”, “Angel” and “Relance’ had high amounts of anthocyanins and showed a wide range of red and purple colors in their petals, whereas “Il Weol’, “Popcorn Ball’ and “Anastasia” produced higher carotenoid contents and displayed yellow or green petal colors. Interestingly, “Green Pang Pang”, which contained a high level of anthocyanins and a medium level of carotenoids, showed the deep green colored petals. “Kastelli”, had high level of carotenoids as well as a medium level of anthocyanins and showed orange and red colored petals. It was concluded that each pigment is responsible for the petal’s colors and the compositions of the pigments affect their flower colors and that the cultivars could be a good source for pharmaceutical, floriculture, and pigment industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: chrysanthemum; Dendranthema grandiflorum; cyanidin 3-glucoside; cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl) glucoside; lutein; zeaxanthin; β-cryptoxanthin; α-carotene; 13-cis-β-carotene; trans-β-carotene; 9-cis-β-carotene chrysanthemum; Dendranthema grandiflorum; cyanidin 3-glucoside; cyanidin 3-(3ʺ-malonoyl) glucoside; lutein; zeaxanthin; β-cryptoxanthin; α-carotene; 13-cis-β-carotene; trans-β-carotene; 9-cis-β-carotene
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, C.H.; Chae, S.C.; Park, S.-Y.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.J.; Chung, S.O.; Arasu, M.V.; Al-Dhabi, N.A.; Park, S.U. Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Contents in Different Cultivars of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat.) Flower. Molecules 2015, 20, 11090-11102.

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