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Molecules 2015, 20(5), 8875-8892; doi:10.3390/molecules20058875

Effect of Extrusion Cooking on Bioactive Compounds in Encapsulated Red Cactus Pear Powder

1
Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Circuito Universitario s/n Campus Universitario 2, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico
2
Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza 66450, Mexico
3
Centro de Biotecnología-FEMSA, Escuela de Ingenería y Ciencias, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Av. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
4
Facultad de Ciencias Agrotecnológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Circuito Universitario s/n Campus Universitario 1, Chihuahua 31310, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Received: 25 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the −0.0188 to −0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of −0.0122 to −0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products. View Full-Text
Keywords: red cactus pear powder; extrusion cooking; betalains; bioactive compounds red cactus pear powder; extrusion cooking; betalains; bioactive compounds
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-Gutiérrez, M.G.; Amaya-Guerra, C.A.; Quintero-Ramos, A.; Pérez-Carrillo, E.; Ruiz-Anchondo, T.J.; Báez-González, J.G.; Meléndez-Pizarro, C.O. Effect of Extrusion Cooking on Bioactive Compounds in Encapsulated Red Cactus Pear Powder. Molecules 2015, 20, 8875-8892.

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