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Molecules 2015, 20(5), 7925-7939; doi:10.3390/molecules20057925

Antinociceptive Activity and Toxicity Evaluation of the Fatty Oil from Plukenetia polyadenia Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae)

1
Laboratório de Neuroinflamação, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), 66075-900 Belém, PA, Brazil
2
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), 66075-900 Belém, PA, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Neuroquímica Molecular e Celular, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), 66075-900 Belém, PA, Brazil
4
Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará (UNIFESSPA), 68507-590 Marabá, PA, Brazil
5
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), 66075-900 Belém, PA, Brazil
6
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Naturais, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará (UFOPA), 68035-110 Santarém, PA, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Received: 20 December 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 3 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Seed oil (Pp-oil) of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to give a 47.0% yield of oil. It was then subjected to fatty acid composition analysis. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.5%), α-linolenic acid (34.4%) and oleic acid (13.9%). Then, it was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in mice, using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin test models. Additionally, its toxicity was determined. The Pp-oil proved to have no toxicological effects, showing dose-dependent antinociceptive effect under chemical stimulation. At oral doses of 25–100 mg/kg, Pp-oil significantly reduced the abdominal writhes in the writhing test. A higher oral dose of 200 mg/kg did not induce alterations in the latency time of the hot plate test when compared to the control, suggesting an analgesic activity of peripheral origin. At oral doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the Pp-oil significantly reduced the second phase of the algic stimulus in the formalin test. In addition, the antinociception of Pp-oil was reversed by naloxone in the evaluation of its mechanism of action. Therefore, the Pp-oil proved to be safe at very high doses and to show significant analgesic properties. The role of Pp-oil is still being investigated with respect the mechanism of action, but the results suggest that opiod receptors could be involved in the antinociception action observed for the oil of P. polyadenia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Plukenetia polyadenia; Euphorbiaceae; fatty oil; linoleic and α-linolenic acids; antinociception activity; toxicity Plukenetia polyadenia; Euphorbiaceae; fatty oil; linoleic and α-linolenic acids; antinociception activity; toxicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mota, A.S.; de Lima, A.B.; Albuquerque, T.L.F.; Silveira, T.S.; Nascimento, J.L.M.; Silva, J.K.R.; Ribeiro, A.F.; Maia, J.G.S.; Bastos, G.N.T. Antinociceptive Activity and Toxicity Evaluation of the Fatty Oil from Plukenetia polyadenia Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). Molecules 2015, 20, 7925-7939.

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