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Molecules 2015, 20(4), 7034-7047; doi:10.3390/molecules20047034

Phytochemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Essential Oil from Xanthium strumarium L.

1
Zabol Medicinal Plants Research Center, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61615-585, Iran
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61615-585, Iran
3
Pediatric Infections Research Center, Mofid Children Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 15468-15514, Iran
4
Department of Range and Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Zabol, Zabol 98615-538, Iran
5
Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol 61663335, Iran
6
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, via G. Celoria 2, Milan 20133, Italy
7
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, Zabol 98615-538, Iran
8
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan 33431063, Iran
9
Department of Fishery, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan 49138-15739, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 5 February 2015 / Revised: 13 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
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Abstract

The chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) from fresh cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) leaves was investigated by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the EO was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Scolicidal activity was assayed against Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices. In total, 34 compounds were identified, accounting for 98.96% of the EO. The main compounds in the EO were cis-β-guaiene (34.2%), limonene (20.3%), borneol (11.6%), bornyl acetate (4.5%), β-cubebene (3.8%), sabinene (3.6%), phytol (3.1%), β-selinene (2.8%), camphene (2.2%), α-cubebene (2.4%), β-caryophyllene (1.9%), α-pinene (1.8%) and xanthinin (1.04%). The antibacterial and antifungal screening of the EO showed that all assayed concentrations significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger (MIC = 0.5 ± 0.1, 1.3 ± 0.0, 4.8 ± 0.0, 20.5 ± 0.3, 55.2 ± 0.0 and 34.3 ± 0.0 µg/mL, respectively). The scolicidal assay indicated that the EO exhibited a significant activity against E. granulosus protoscolices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the scolicidal activity of X. strumarium. Because of the emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance, the study of new effective natural chemotherapeutic agents, such as the X. strumarium EO, possibly with low side effects, represents a very promising approach in biomedical research. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocklebur; isoprenoids; antimicrobial agents; antibacterial activity; antifungal activity; scolicidal activity cocklebur; isoprenoids; antimicrobial agents; antibacterial activity; antifungal activity; scolicidal activity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sharifi-Rad, J.; Hoseini-Alfatemi, S.M.; Sharifi-Rad, M.; Sharifi-Rad, M.; Iriti, M.; Sharifi-Rad, M.; Sharifi-Rad, R.; Raeisi, S. Phytochemical Compositions and Biological Activities of Essential Oil from Xanthium strumarium L.. Molecules 2015, 20, 7034-7047.

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