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Molecules 2015, 20(3), 5112-5136; doi:10.3390/molecules20035112

Functional Characterization of Individual- and Mixed-Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates for Fermentation of Pinot Noir

1
Wine Research Centre, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
2
Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, BC V0H 1Z0, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Susan E. Ebeler and Helene Hopfer
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1872 KB, uploaded 19 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Pinot noir has traditionally been fermented by native flora of multiple yeasts producing a complex combination of aromas and flavors. With the use of industrial dry yeasts, winemakers gained enological reliability and consistency in their wines, but lost diversity and complexity. This research evaluated the use of co-culturing yeasts to fulfill this dual role. Fermentations of Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates and their mixtures were evaluated for their enological characteristics and production of volatile compounds, at 22 °C and 27 °C. The novel isolates were genetically unique and enologically equivalent to the industrial strains. Analysis of variance and principal component analysis of 25 headspace volatiles revealed differences among the yeasts and between the fermentation temperatures. Wines from the mixed-Burgundian isolates were most similar to one another and could be differentiated from the industrial strains at both 22 °C and 27 °C. Mixed-Burgundian wines at both temperatures had higher concentrations of ethyl esters and acetate esters, compared to the industrial strains which had higher concentrations of higher alcohols at 27 °C and higher concentration of other ethyl esters at 22 °C. Given the unique profiles of the co-cultured wines, this research offers winemakers a strategy for producing wines with unique and more complex characters without the risk of spontaneous fermentations. View Full-Text
Keywords: wine; S. cerevisiae; fermentation; volatile compounds; novel yeast strains wine; S. cerevisiae; fermentation; volatile compounds; novel yeast strains
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Terrell, E.; Cliff, M.A.; Van Vuuren, H.J.J. Functional Characterization of Individual- and Mixed-Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates for Fermentation of Pinot Noir. Molecules 2015, 20, 5112-5136.

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